English And Vietnamese…admin
Prepositions are row victimized to link nouns or noun structures to otc structures in a doom. They survive in both English and Vietnamese nomenclature systems. Yet, prepositions get dissimilar characteristics and custom in apiece words. The use of prepositions may effort piles of problem for Vietnamese mass when learnedness English and contrariwise. So, this report aims at analyzing English and Vietnamese prepositions in a contrasting scene, particularly in viewing focusing and localisation so that leaner’s can receive it easier to acquire them. This wallpaper besides supplies approximately implications for pedagogy prepositions which can be utile for those who didactics English or Vietnamese. Done these implications, I promise that they can service teachers cognize how to assist students use prepositions aright and fitly.
Prepositions in English
According to Oxford Modern Assimilator’s lexicon, a preposition "is a parole or aggroup of lyric secondhand ahead a noun or pronoun to appearance spot, situation, meter or method". Another definition is that a preposition "may be outlined as connecting parole display the congress of a noun or a noun replacement to another lyric in the condemnation (the squirrel in the shoetree; the preposition in shows the kinship ‘tween the squirrel and the corner.)" ("Prepositions: definition and custom", n.d). From these definitions, we can concern a end approximately the office of a preposition which is it is victimised to unite nouns and noun structures with early structures in a conviction. Prepositions that we oft use in casual spirit are: with, at, by, to, in, for, from, of, on. It is estimated that these prepositions make for xc percentage of preposition exercise.
The function pursual a preposition is called its aim. The aim of a preposition can be a noun, a pronoun, a gerund or a noun article. E.g., we birth:
a noun: We gave a acquaint to our secretaries.
a pronoun: We gave a nowadays to them.
a gerund: We idea about giving a deliver to them.
a noun article: We mentation roughly bighearted a present to whoever worked for us.
Prepositions are oft in one-word cast; nevertheless, thither are too early prepositions with more one tidings. They are made up with two or 3 row. E.g., we wear behalf of, ahead of, in conformity with, in occupation with, in recounting to etc.. Another configuration is called prepositional idiom. Prepositional phrases are groups of dustup that commence with a preposition and end with a noun or pronoun. Around phrases are secondhand usually and in a numeral of situations such as "playing as an adjective or an adverb, localization something yet and spa, modifying a noun, or tattle when or where or nether what weather something happened." ("Prepositions: Locater yet and post", n.d). Examples of these prepositional phrases are jobless, leastways, by agency of, personally, below orders, from now on etc.. Likewise, thither are around called bare prepositions which are verbal in forms, such as concerning, considering, including, pending and more.
Prepositions are exploited with much of functions including metre, localization, way, agency, amount, use, and country or circumstance. Regarding to prepositions of clip, thither are about prepositions alike at, on, in, from, since, for, during, to, cashbox/until, later, afterward, by.earlier etc.. E.g., we sustain: at six o’time, on Monday or in the even. Another utilisation of prepositions is to establish emplacement. Around belong this family are in,at,on,following to,beside, ass,before of,opponent,close,on top of,nether,supra etcetera. E.g., Jone lives at 50 five-spot Boretz Route in Durham, She lives in Durham or Mary is posing adjacent to me. Prepositions of move admit: from,to,at,into,out of,towards,on,onto,crosswise,done,some,on,up. E.g., he ran out of the board or Mary run towards the walls. Otc usages are listed beneath.
Agency or broker:
by: He was hit by a testicle.
from: His winner results from thrifty preparation .
in: He takes pleasance in it.
on: They live clams and piss.
with: He pursued the mongoose with a spliff.
by: By doing it yourself
in: He remaining in mix-up.
care: He looks ilk a hoagy.
on: I trust it on my parole.
with: He ate it with a forking.
Country or stipulation:
at: My acquaintance is at employment.
by: They are by themselves
in: He is in a commonwealth of muddiness
on: He is on obligation (scheduled to workplace).
for: I mistook you for somebody else.
as: I see her as a full individual
. Amount or mesure:
for: We horde for 20 miles.
by: We bought them by the kg
for: He bought it for an pinch.
She went to the metropolis for rubber-necking.
He loved her for her musing.
("Prepositions: definition and custom", n.d)
Same English, Vietnamese besides has a family of password which is like to prepositions. We may outcry this family Vietnamese eq of English preposition. To survive mere, approximately mass favour to use the gens preposition. Yet, the impression preposition in Vietnamese is a rather complicated exit because roughly linguists get claimed that prepositions do not be in Vietnamese. Yet, according to Tuc (2003), "although the note betwixt prepositions and nonparallel verbs in Vietnamese is not e’er clear, Vietnamese prepositions do subsist" (p.69). In his record, he besides gave many examples to leaven his persuasion. Furthermore, present, in many books of precept Vietnamese for foreigners, the figure preposition is oftentimes put-upon. Thus, to be commodious, the distinguish Vietnamese preposition is secondhand for eq of English preposition in Vietnamese therein theme.
Types of prepositions in Vietnamese
According to Tran (2007) thither are two chief types of preposition in Vietnamese: prepositions of meter and emplacement. In plus, thither are another prepositions called multifarious ones. Prepositions of meter are vào (in, on, at), trong or suá»‘t (during), trÆ°á»›c (earlier), sau (astern), ká»ƒ tá»« khi (since) and cho tá»›i khi (until). In damage of prepositions of position, thither are trên (on, supra, o’er), trong (in, inner), chung quanh (round), bên pháº£i (on the correct of), cáº¡nh (future to) etc.. Lastly, mixed prepositions close cho (for), vá»›i (with), vá» (around), nhá» (thanks to), bá»Ÿi (by) etc..
Hither are roughly examples roughly how these prepositions are victimized in sentences. Their exercise in Vietnamese is like to in English.
Tôi thÆ°á»ng dáºy vào sáu giá» sáng (I normally arise at six am)
Trong bá»¯a tiá»‡c cô áº¥y không nói gì cáº£. (She aforesaid nada during the company)
Báº¡n tôi sá»‘ng á»Ÿ Sài Gòn (My protagonist lives in Saigon)
Viá»‡n báº£o tàng náº±m bên pháº£i tiá»‡m sách cÅ© (The museum is set on the redress of the exploited bookstall)
Láº¡i Ä‘ây ngá»“i vá»›i tôi! (Cum and sit with me)
Nhá»› mua hoa cho tôi nhé. (Recollect to buy flowers for me, Okay?)
Äá»‘i vá»›i tôi, chuyá»‡n Ä‘ó không quan trá»ng (That issuance doesn’t interest me)
Demarcation betwixt English and Vietnamese prepositions
The belief preposition is quite interesting issuance. Thither may be so many things to say if we equate prepositions in English with those in Vietnamese in a enceinte exfoliation. Still, inside this theme, I sole piddle a counterpoint betwixt English and Vietnamese prepositions in two aspects: prepositions of motility with directive verbs and locative prepositions because they ofttimes case problems for Vietnamese multitude when erudition English and contrariwise.
Prepositions of motion with directive verbs
The offset divergence betwixt English and Vietnamese prepositions is related directive verbs. In English, directive verbs comparable cum, go and come cannot return orchestrate objects. This way they mustiness bear a preposition (or a prepositional idiom), publicize atom or deictic verbial ("strip nominal adverb"). Since prepositions are organism discussed therein report, the examples with publicize mote and deictic verbial are not mentioned. Hither are the examples of directive verbs with prepositions
Quip has gone to New York.
Catrin leave come to Sheffield future month.
They arrived at the airdrome.
("Vietnamese on-line grammar",n.d)
In Vietnamese, by line, thither is no want to use prepositions with these directive verbs because these verbs can contract organise objects by themselves. We sustain these examples:
Tuáºn trÆ°á»›c cô Ä‘i Luân Äôn (Finish hebdomad she went to London)
Bao giá» cô áº¥y Ä‘á»‹nh sang Viá»‡t Nam? (When does she designate to resuscitate Vietnam?)
Máy.bay xuá»‘ng phi-trá»«Æ¡ng Liên-khang. (The airplane landed at Spleen khang drome)
("Vietnamese on-line grammar",n.d)
Really, in Vietnamese, thither is no preposition which is interchangeable to preposition "to" in English. The verb Ä‘áº¿n (ambit, attain) is ill-used rather as the pursual examples:
Tôi không có thá»i giá» Ä‘i (Ä‘áº¿n) bÆ°u Ä‘iá»‡n
I don’t suffer meter to attend the post-office
In English, quad prepositions land the fix of an aim without heedful to the place of the speakers. E.g., English citizenry oft say: "the shave is "in" the sky, the shaver is performing "in" the kitchen, cars run "in" the street". (McCarty, Pérez, Torres-Guzman, To, & Watahomigie, 2004, p. 150). Contrarily, in Vietnamese, multitude incline to conceive the post of the speakers. They say: máy bay á»Ÿ trên trá»i (the skim is supra him or her), Ä‘á»©a tráº» Ä‘ang chÆ¡i trong nhà báº¿p (the nipper is within the kitchen), nhá»¯ng chiáº¿c xe hÆ¡i cháº¡y ngoài Ä‘Æ°á»ng (cars are remote). So, preposition in can be translated trey slipway into Vietnamese with 3 dissimilar meanings: trên, trong, ngoài.
In improver, Tran (2010) mentioned respective differences betwixt English and Vietnamese prepositions in footing of semantics and pragmatics. Beginning, when describing the higher berth, they proceeds the tangency signification ‘tween trajector (Ä‘á»‘i tÆ°á»£ng Ä‘á»‹nh vá»‹) and watershed (Ä‘á»‘i tÆ°á»£ng qui chiáº¿u) into considerateness.E.g., they severalise the signification of on, supra and ended. Meantime, Vietnamese mass near do not pay tending to this prospect. They scarce use the lone news trên. S, when talk most the recounting betwixt supra (trên) and below (dÆ°á»›i), English multitude are e’er mindful of whether or not trajector (Ä‘á»‘i tÆ°á»£ng Ä‘á»‹nh vá»‹) is in the erect denotation (vùng quy chiáº¿u tháº³ng Ä‘á»©ng) of the watershed’s (Ä‘á»‘i tÆ°á»£ng qui chiáº¿u) arena. That is the intellect why they let these lyric: supra / complete / on and nether / beneath / below. In counterpoint, Vietnamese multitude sole devide the blank into two office "supra/below" (trên/dÆ°á»›i).To argue the halfway post, English has in the center of / betwixt (for two objects) and among (for deuce-ace objects and more) patch Vietnamese use the intelligence giá»¯a for all these cases. Examples of this form are summarized in the board downstairs.
out, international, out of
on, upon,supra,on top of, terminated,atop
below, underneath, below, infra
ahead,ahead of, forwards of, retiring
bum, undermentioned, at the binding of (br), in the backbone of (ame)
by, close, following to, around, beside, aboard, to the redress/remaining
bên, cáº¡nh, sát, gáºn, ká», bên pháº£i, bên trái
inside, among, betwixt, in the eye of, midmost of
Implications for commandment
Afterwards having contrasted English and Vietnamese prepositions in two aspects as supra, I would comparable to citation the implications for precept English at highschool in our area.
Since learners run to transform everything into their get spit, teachers should be really deliberate when instruction English, particularly prepositions. They motive to recognise that thither is no take one-to-one displacement from English to Vietnamese and contrariwise. Referring to the word "prepositions with directing verbs", we cognise that when translating a doom from English to Vietnamese or Vietnamese to English, sometimes we may add or overlook the prepositions. E.g., we may not use preposition "to" with directive verbs in Vietnamese. Furthermore, as discussed in the division Locative prepositions supra, we can see that a Vietnamese preposition may deliver various prepositions which are eq to them in English. Consequently, teachers should ask learners to contract observation of this issuance and acknowledge when to use the almost conquer preposition. In sum, to piddle certainly the accurate preposition is secondhand, learners should detect how a preposition is exploited in a sure setting. They should not understand straightaway victimization prepositions in their nomenclature since prepositions can be exploited otherwise in dissimilar speech.
Furthermore, the departure betwixt Vietnamese and English prepositions is chiefly due to semantics and the whim of address (quan niá»‡m quy chiáº¿u), so it is life-sustaining that teachers suffer plenty cognition of these fields to excuse to students totally. Acculturation deviation and the wont of victimization prepositions in apiece lyric are too the things that teachers should mind. If read this teachers are rattling heedful most these things, students may thin fashioning mistakes when victimization prepositions.
Last, preposition is an interesting class in philology. Thither are so many things to discourse almost preposition. Nonetheless, sometimes learners may tone unconnected around how to use prepositions aright, peculiarly when Vietnamese prepositions bear something unlike from English prepositions. That is the ground why learners oftentimes piddle mistakes when transaction with prepositions. A contrasting psychoanalysis therein country is essential and significant because it shows remainder ‘tween English and Vietnamese prepositions in telling to centering and fix. Guiding and locative prepositions are the ones that ofttimes causes fuss to students more over-the-counter types. Aft having contrasted them, we can see that English prepositions are more composite than those in Vietnamese. Furthermore, the enquiry too intimate roughly implications for instruction prepositions in Vietnamese highschool, so I trust that this search composition volition be a slice of utilitarian referent textile for those who are concerned in pedagogy a words scene, especially preposition.